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Newcastle, city (1991 pop. 262,331), New South Wales, SE Australia, on the Pacific Ocean. It is the center of one of the country's largest coal-mining areas and is a large port. Coal, wool, iron and steel, and wheat are exported. The city has steel mills and shipyards; chemicals, glass, fertilizer, and textiles are also produced. The first permanent settlement on the site was made in 1804. The Univ. of Newcastle is in the city.