Question:

What is Aust. Literature 20th century?

H's #1

handbrake
noun the wife; missus; girlfriend; female partner
`The handbrake wouldn't let me'
hit his kick
colloquialism reached into his pocket (usually to pay for a round of drinks)
'Thommo hit his kick and bought us all a beer.'

See the entire list of 'Slang H's' in the Articles Section on this site Aussie slang H's #1

The System

Education
Education in Australia is primarily the responsibility of the individual states. In each state administration, the training and recruiting of teachers are centralized under an education department. Education is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15 in all the states except Tasmania, where the upper age limit is 16. Most children start their schooling at the age of 5. State schools provide free secular education; students may attend religious classes offered by the clergy of various denominations. About 72 percent of students attend state schools. In addition to the state school system there are private schools, which are usually denominational and charge tuition fees. The majority of the private schools are Catholic. Some private schools, which in some states are called public schools as in Britain, accept day students and boarders. Schooling is provided at kindergartens and play centers for children from 2 to 6 years of age. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation conducts broadcasts for kindergarten children unable to attend such centers. Special provisions are made for children in isolated areas. These include Schools of the Air—where children use two-way radios, television sets, video and cassette recorders, and computers to participate in classroom instruction—and correspondence schools.

Most children transfer from the primary to the secondary school level at the age of 12. Secondary schools, known as high schools and junior technical schools, provide five- or six-year courses that enable students to prepare for state examinations for university entrance. The commonwealth government conducts the educational program for all children in the territories. In 1995 Australia had nearly 10,000 primary and secondary schools, with an annual enrollment of 1.9 million primary students and 2.4 million secondary students.

Australian Literature

Australian literature has developed certain well-defined qualities: a love of the vast, empty land, with its unique flora and fauna, a compelling sense of the worth of the common people, and freedom from the bondage of European traditions.

Australian authors have made considerable contributions to world literature. Some of the most famous Peter Carey, whose books include 'Oscar and Lucinda' and 'The True History of the Kelly Gang', Tim Winton, who wrote 'Cloudstreet' among many others, Murray Bail, author of 'Eucalyptus', John Marsden, Robin Klein, Bryce Courtenay, Dorothy Porter, David Malouf, Garry Disher, Helen Garner... the list goes on.

For more information on Australian literature, consult the specific tips throughout this tip site.

Platypus

The platypus or duck-billed platypus is an egg laying mammal of Eastern Australia. It has a duck-like bill, and wide, flat tail. It is about 61 cm. (24 in.) long and weighs about 1.8 kg. (4 lbs.). It has dark brown or yellow fur and its webbed feet and tail help it to swim. Males have poison spurs on their hind feet that kill small animals and wound larger ones. Using plates on its bill it crushes and eats worms, mollusks, crustaceans, and plants.

Mating takes place in early spring. The female digs a hole about 4.5-18 m (15-60 ft.) deep. There she builds a nest and usually lays two eggs. They hatch in about eight to ten days and nurse for about 5 months. The average life span is about 10 years. They usually live by a river bank. They are able to move around on land, but they have to walk on their knuckles because their webbing gets in the way.

L's #1

larrikin
noun harmless prankster; cheeky; irreverent
`My kid's a fair dinkum (see) little larrikin'

lollies
noun sweets; confectionery
`I gave her flowers and lollies'
love spuds
noun testicles (see also `knackers', `nuts')
See the entire list of 'Slang L's' in the Articles Section on this site Aussie slang words: L's #1

N's #1

nick
noun nude (see also `nuddie')
`Do you sleep in the nick?'
nightie
noun nightdress
'Saw his missus (see) in her flannelette nightie -- horrible sight!'
nuddy; nuddie
noun nude; (in the) nick (see)
nuts
noun testicles (see also `knackers', `love spuds')
`She kneed me in the nuts!'

See the entire list of 'Slang N's' in the Articles Section on this site Aussie slang words: N's #1

Prince Philip Mountbatten

Edinburgh, Prince Philip Mountbatten, duke of [ed'inburu]
Pronunciation Key
Edinburgh, Prince Philip Mountbatten, duke of , 1921–, consort of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain, b. Greece. He was the son of Prince Andrew of Greece and Princess Alice, daughter of Prince Louis of Battenberg, and a grandson of George I of Greece, great-grandson of Christian IX of Denmark, and great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria. He took his mother's name, Mountbatten, when he became a British citizen in 1947, and renounced his Greek and Danish titles. Educated at the Royal Navy College, Philip served in the British navy during World War II. He was created duke of Edinburgh shortly before his marriage (Nov. 20, 1947) to Elizabeth. In 1957, Elizabeth conferred upon him the title of Prince. He has been a strong advocate of British scientific and technical innovation, wildlife protection, and conservation.

Australian Literature: 19th Century

Early attempts at producing literary works in Australia were rather gentrified, written in the English style for an English audience. A good example is W. C. Wentworth's 'Australasia, an Ode' (1823), which is sadlyimitative. During the next few decades Australian writers began to work within their environment, increasingly finding inspiration in their homeland, with the interpretive nature poetry of Charles Harpur (1813–68) and Henry Kendall (1839–82) and with the novels of Henry Kingsley (brother of Charles Kingsley), who wrote about pioneer life.

The bush ballad, begun by Adam Lindsay Gordon, flowered in the work of Henry Lawson (1867–1922) and A. B. (“Banjo”) Paterson (1864–1941), whose 'Man from Snowy River and Other Verses' (1895) includes the famous song “Waltzing Matilda.” Convict life was depicted in Henry Savery´s Quintus Servinton (1830), but it was not until almost a century after the first prisoners arrived that they received their due, in Marcus Clarke´s classic account of life in a penal colony, 'For the Term of His Natural Life' (1874). Less powerful, but true to life in the bush, were the novels of Rolfe Boldrewood (pseud. of Thomas A. Browne) and James Tucker, whose 'Ralph Rashleigh '(1844) was the first book to focus on Australia´s unique combination of prison life, aborigines, and bushrangers.

Other important 19th-century novelists were Miles Franklin (1879–1954), whose 'My Brilliant Career' (1901) is often designated the first authentically Australian novel, and diarist-novelist Tom Collins (pseud. of Joseph Furphy, 1843–1912). Poets of note include Hugh McCrae (1876–1958) and Dame Mary Gilmore (1865–1962).

Australian Literature: 20th Century

As the world became increasingly industrialised and the focus of the nation moved to its cities, Australia's writers moved away from pastoral tales. The present century eventually produced greater sophistication and diversity among writers. Probably the most important Australian writer of the early 20th cent. was Henry Handel Richardson (pseud. of Ethel Richardson Robertson), whose autobiographical trilogy, 'The Fortunes of Richard Mahoney' (1930), presents a compelling portrait of Australian life. Richardson´s reputation was matched at mid-century by Patrick White whose strong, somber novels, Australian in setting yet universal in theme, reveal the author´s ambivalence toward his native land; White received the Nobel Prize in 1973.

Other notable 20th-century novelists are Brian Penton, Leonard Mann, Christina Stead (only one of whose novels is actually set in Australia), Arthur William Upfield (1888–1964), John O´Grady, Morris West, C. J. Koch, Peter Carey, Thomas Keneally, and the aborigine Colin Johnson. After emigrating to Australia in 1950, the English novelist Nevil Shute subsequently produced novels with Australian settings and themes.

M's #1

mate
noun friend; cobber (see); familiar term of address among men, similar to US `buddy'
`This here's Raysie, me best mate'
mickey
noun vagina; hence 'mickey whisker' = pubic hair OR, colloquially, a very short distance/measurement
'We shaved a mickey whisker off the bottom of the door to get it to fit.'
missus
noun wife; the handbrake (see)
'I took me missus down the pub (see) last night.'

See the entire list of 'Slang M's' in the Articles Section on this site Aussie slang words: M's #1

Aesthetics

Aesthetics
Paintings in ochre on sheets of bark were indigenous to Arnhem Land, although examples could be found in the Kimberleys and in southeastern Australia. They were used mostly on the initiation ground for the instruction of novices.
Read this Article at:Aboriginal Aesthetics
Many Aboriginal artists still practice the traditional techniques see: Aboriginal Art Site.

Princess Diana

Princess Diana
Diana, princess of Wales, 1961–97, wife of Charles, prince of Wales (1948–), heir to the British throne. The daughter of the 8th Earl Spencer, Lady Diana Frances Spencer was a kindergarten teacher in London before her 1981 marriage to Charles. They had two sons, the princes William (b. 1982) and Henry (b. 1984), but separated in 1992 and were divorced in 1996. Diana and Charles were rivals for acceptance by the British public after their marriage unraveled spectacularly; her death in a Paris car crash in Aug., 1997, brought a huge outpouring of sentiment.
See A. Morton, Diana, Her True Story (1992); S. B. Smith, Diana (1999).

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